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what is the function of PAC and PAM in water treatment?

Poly aluminum chloride (referred to as poly aluminum) also known as flocculant, coagulant aid, coagulant. [English name] Polyaluminium Chloride, abbreviated PAC. [Technical standard] Product quality in line with national GB15892-2003 standard. Compared with other coagulants, polyaluminum chloride has the following advantages: wide application range, wide adaptability to water. Easy to quickly form large alum flower, good precipitation performance. The suitable PH value range is wide (5-9), and the PH value and basicity of treated water decrease little. When the water temperature is low, it can still maintain stable precipitation effect. Alkalinity is higher than other aluminum salts, iron salts, erosion of equipment is small.

what is the function of PAC and PAM in water treatment?


1.PAC

Product name :[Chinese name] Poly aluminum chloride (referred to as poly aluminum) also known as flocculant, coagulant aid, coagulant. [English name] Polyaluminium Chloride, abbreviated PAC. [Technical standard] Product quality in line with national GB15892-2003 standard. Compared with other coagulants, polyaluminum chloride has the following advantages: wide application range, wide adaptability to water. Easy to quickly form large alum flower, good precipitation performance. The suitable PH value range is wide (5-9), and the PH value and basicity of treated water decrease little. When the water temperature is low, it can still maintain stable precipitation effect. Alkalinity is higher than other aluminum salts, iron salts, erosion of equipment is small.


Physical and chemical indicators: the product is an inorganic polymer coagulant. Mainly through the compression of the double layer, adsorption electric neutralization, adsorption bridge, sedimentation and other mechanisms, so that edema fine suspended particles and colloidal ions instability, aggregation, flocculation, coagulation, precipitation, to achieve purification treatment effect.


Usage :1. Dissolve solid polyaluminum chloride into liquid by adding 1:3 water, and then dilute it with 10-30 times water to the required concentration before use. 2, dosage can be determined according to the different turbidity of raw water, the best dosage, generally raw water turbidity in 100-500mg/L, each thousand tons of dosage is 10-20kg.


Main use: city water supply and drainage purification: river water and reservoir water, groundwater, industrial water purification, sewage treatment, industrial wastewater and waste residue in the useful material recycling, and promote the settlement of pulverized coal in the coal washing wastewater, starch in the starch industry to recycle, all kinds of industrial wastewater treatment, printing and dyeing wastewater, leather wastewater, containing fluorine wastewater, heavy metal wastewater, oily wastewater, papermaking wastewater, Coal washing wastewater, mining wastewater, brewing wastewater, metallurgical wastewater, meat processing wastewater, sewage treatment, papermaking additives, cloth reinforcement, catalyst carrier, pharmaceutical refining, cement rapid setting, cosmetics raw materials, etc.


2.PAM


Product Name:

[英 文名称] polyacrylamide, flocculant no.3; Polyacrylamide colloid TYPE I; Polyacrylamide colloid type ii

[英文名称]Polyacrylamide

Abbr. PAM. [molecular formula]C3H5NO


Product characteristics: the molecule of the product can bridge adsorption with suspended particles dispersed in the solution, and has a strong flocculation effect. Density = 1.3


Main uses: the product has water-soluble polymer compound and active acyl group on the main chain, so it is widely used in petroleum exploitation, water treatment, textile printing and dyeing, paper making, mineral processing, coal washing, medicine, sugar production, breeding, building materials, agriculture and other industries, known as "additives for all industries" and "universal product".


1 water treatment field :PAM in the water treatment industry application mainly includes raw water treatment, sewage treatment and industrial water treatment three aspects. In raw water treatment,PAM and activated carbon used together, can be used for coagulation and clarification of suspended particles in living water; In sewage treatment. PAM can be used for sludge dewatering; In industrial water treatment, mainly used as a formula. In the raw water


In treatment, using organic flocculant PAM instead of inorganic flocculant, the water purification capacity can be increased by more than 20% even if the sedimentation tank is not reformed. So at present, many large and medium-sized cities in the water supply shortage or poor water quality, are using PAM as a supplement. In wastewater treatment, PAM can increase the utilization rate of water reuse cycle.


2. Oil production field: in oil exploitation, it is mainly used in drilling mud materials and improving oil recovery rate, widely used in drilling, completion, cementing, fracturing, enhanced oil recovery and other oilfield exploitation operations, with viscosity increase, filtration loss reduction, rheological regulation, gelling, diversion, profile adjustment and other functions. At present, China's oilfield exploitation has entered the middle and late stage. In order to improve oil recovery, polymer flooding and asp flooding technology are mainly promoted at present. By injecting polyacrylamide aqueous solution, the oil-water velocity ratio was improved, and the crude oil content in the produced product was increased. Polymer flooding technology has been widely used in Daqing oilfield and Shengli oilfield in China due to the special geological conditions.


3 papermaking field :PAM is widely used as a resident agent, filter aid and homogenizer in papermaking field. Its function is to improve the quality of paper, improve the dehydration performance of slurry, improve the retention rate of fine fiber and filler, reduce the consumption of raw materials and environmental pollution. The effect used in paper depends on its average molecular weight, ionic properties, ionic strength and the activity of other copolymers. Non-ionic PAM is mainly used to improve the filter properties of pulp, increase the strength of dry paper, improve the retention rate of fiber and filler; Anionic copolymer is mainly used as dry and wet intensifier and resident agent of paper; Cationic copolymer is mainly used in papermaking wastewater treatment and filtration aid, and also has good effect on improving the retention rate of fillers. In addition,PAM is also used in papermaking wastewater treatment and fiber recovery.


4 textile printing and dyeing industry: in the textile industry,PAM as fabric post-processing sizing agent, finishing agent, can generate a soft, wrinkle resistant, mold resistant protective layer. The yarn breaking rate can be reduced by using its high moisture absorption. PAM as post-treatment agent can prevent static electricity and flame retardant fabric; When used as printing and dyeing auxiliaries, it can make the products adhere to a high fastness, high brightness, and can also be used as a non-silicon polymer stabilizer for bleaching. In addition, it can also be used for efficient purification of textile printing and dyeing wastewater.


5 other fields: in mining, coal washing field, the use of PAM as flocculant can promote mining, coal washing recovery of solid water settlement, water clarification, while recycling useful solid particles, to avoid environmental pollution; In sugar industry, it can accelerate the sinking of fine particles in sugarcane juice, promote the filtration and improve the clarity of filtrate. In the aquaculture industry, can improve water quality, increase the light transmittance of water, so as to improve the photosynthesis of water; In the pharmaceutical industry, it can be used as flocculant for the separation of antibiotics, as adhesive for tablets and process water clarification agent, etc. In the building materials industry, can be used as coating thickening dispersant, saw stone plate coolant and ceramic adhesive; In agriculture, can be used as high water absorption materials can be used as soil humectant and seed culture agent. In the construction industry, it can enhance the hardness of gypsum cement and speed up the dehydration of asbestos cement. In addition, it can also be used as protective coating for natural or synthetic leather and granulation agent for inorganic fertilizer.


Physical and chemical indicators: Commonly known as flocculant or coagulant, this product is a linear polymer with a molecular weight between 3 million and 25 million. The solid product has a white powder appearance, and the liquid is colorless and viscous colloidal, soluble in water and almost insoluble in organic solvents. application


It should be dissolved at room temperature and decomposed easily when the temperature exceeds 150℃. It is non-dangerous goods, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Solid PAM has hygroscopicity, flocculation, adhesion, resistance reduction, thickening, and good stability.


Method of use :1. Dissolving method Before use, dissolve solid particles into an aqueous solution of 1‰-5‰ concentration in order to quickly play an effect. In dosing, should take a gradual way of medicine, slowly into the water, then evenly dispersed in the water, dissolved.


2. The solution is usually added with an aqueous solution of about 0.5‰-1‰, but in the case of high concentration and high viscosity of suspension, it is recommended to dilute the aqueous solution further to 0.1‰, so that it will be easy to mix and give full play to the effect.


3. The molecular weight of cations is lower than that of anions, so the viscosity is weaker than that of anions, so the concentration standard of cations and non-ionic ratios is slightly higher than that of anions. (Depending on the situation, the concentration can also be adjusted according to the concentration of water. If the concentration is high and the turbidity is low, the concentration can be increased appropriately.) The recommended concentration is 5‰--1%.


Note :1. PAM solution should be prepared in enamel, galvanized, aluminum or plastic buckets, not in iron containers.


2. When dissolving, attention should be paid to adding the product evenly and slowly into the dissolver with stirring and heating measures. Consolidation should be avoided, the solution should be prepared at an appropriate temperature, and excessive mechanical shearing for a long time should be avoided. Recommended agitator 60-200 RPM /min, otherwise it will lead to polymer degradation, affect the use effect.


3. PAM aqueous solution should be used now, when the solution is placed for a long time, its performance will gradually decrease depending on the water quality.


4. After adding flocculant aqueous solution to the suspension, if stirred intensely for a long time, it will destroy the formed flocculant.


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